Novosibirsk (until 1925 — Novo-Nikolaevsk) — the third largest city in Russia, has the status of an urban district.
The administrative center of the Siberian Federal District, the Novosibirsk Region and the Novosibirsk Region that is part of it; the city is the center of the Novosibirsk agglomeration. The largest trade, business, cultural, industrial, transport and scientific center of Siberia.
Novosibirsk was founded in 1893, the status of the city was received in 1903. The population is 1 602 915 people. (2017).
The city is located on both banks of the Ob river near the Novosibirsk reservoir, formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station. The territory of the city, within its city limits, is 505.62 km ².
In Novosibirsk, the leader of China arrived on February 24. Mao Zedong visited the Chkalov aviation plant, he was generally very interested in the industry of the Soviet Union.
Ecology, climate, geography
The Priobskoye Plateau serves as the mainstay of Novosibirsk, which in turn is located near the Ob River. Near to the city there is also a hydropower plant, a reservoir.
The weather in Novosibirsk is like the rest of typical Siberia, with a clear sky and far below freezing winter temperatures. The reason for these temperatures is the absence of nearby ocean, the Ural Mountains, barring Atlantic air masses from reaching Siberia, and the lack of tall mountains at the north of Novosibirsk, that could have held back freezing Arctic winds. In fact, Novosibirsk is the second farthest substantially populated city from the ocean, the first being Ürümqi in China.
The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb), with warm summers and bitterly cold winters. Snow is frequent, falling on almost half of all winter days, but individual snowfalls are usually light. On average temperatures range in summer from +15 °C (59 °F) to +26 °C (79 °F) and in winter from −20 °C (−4 °F) to −12 °C (10 °F). However, winter temperatures can go as low as −30 °C (−22 °F) to −35 °C (−31 °F), and summer temperatures can go as high as +30 °C (86 °F) to +35 °C (95 °F). The difference between the highest and lowest recorded temperatures is 88 °C (158 °F).
The history of the city begins in 1893, during the construction of the railway bridge across the Ob. At the same place, Novosibirsk was founded, having replaced many different names in its time. At the very beginning it was called Novaya Derevnya, then this name was changed to the Noviy Poselok. Soon in honor of Alexander Nevsky the village was called Alexandrovsky, because of its heavenly patronage to Emperor Alexander III. Alexandrovsky village was renamed Novo-Nikolaevsky in 1895 in honor of the divine patron of Emperor Nicholas II — Nicholas the Wonderworker. In 1903 it became the city of Novo-Nikolaevsky. Soviet government in Novo-Nikolaevsk was established at the end of January 1918, and then for the first time they began talking about renaming the city, and in 1925 it was finally renamed to Novosibirsk.
In the rank of the administrative center of the world’s largest administrative-territorial unit, Novosibirsk is again beginning to develop. The city receives the nickname "Siberian Chicago" — with a light hand of the RSFSR People’s Commissar for Education, Academician Anatoly Lunacharsky, who in the late 20’s traveled to Novosibirsk and so recorded his impressions of the visit to the city:
"If five years ago, Novosibirsk was a more village, today is the original city, who grew up in the capital of two hundred thousand and irresistibly rushing forward like a Siberian Chicago".
In 1934 the construction of the Palace of Science and Culture (now the Opera and Ballet Theater) completed the construction of the dome, designed by the Moscow engineer B.F. Matary. Lying on a supporting reinforced concrete ring, which in turn rests on standing columns, this dome was created as a unique monolithic reinforced concrete structure with a diameter of 55.5 meters, with a wall thickness of 8 centimeters. The ratio of the shell thickness of a chicken egg to its diameter is 1/250, while in the brainchild of Matery this figure was 1/750. The building of the Opera House becomes a symbol of modern Novosibirsk.
The idea of creating the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Novosibirsk was implemented in 1957 after the country’s leaders, approved the plan of the three largest Soviet scientists: the father of Mikhail Lavrentiev’s anti-tank cumulative missiles, Sergei Sobolev, the mathematician Sergei Khristianovich. On the outskirts of Novosibirsk, according to these scientists, Akademgorodok was built. Today there are well-known research schools around the world, thanks to which Novosibirsk became the founders of mathematical construction of genetic systems, geographic modeling, a new concept of the initial human settlement of Eurasia and much more.
In 1969, the local zoo, organized in 1947, was headed by the veterinary feldsher RA Shilo, whose name is associated with the transformation of the Novosibirsk Zoo into one of the world’s largest collections of wild animals.
Among the architectural monuments in the city of Novosibirsk, your attention will be attracted by the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the Ascension Cathedral, the chapel of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is the oldest church in the city. It was built in memory in memory of Alexander III in 1895. Ascension Church, survived the persecution and rebuilt in the 40’s, is now the largest and most beautiful church in the city. The building of the theater of opera and ballet is beautiful and majestic.
You can visit the botanical garden and the zoo. Walking along the street. Serebrennikovskaya at its intersection with the street. Sibrevcom, you can see an unusual monument to the post-regulator, looking at the traffic light — "Traffic light and a policeman".
In Novosibirsk there are very beautiful parks. Pines, places for picnics, curative air — in the Zaeltsevsky park. Newlyweds are striving in Pervomaisky Square. The people of the city also love Central Park. One of the city’s adornments is fountains. At night, fountains with illumination on the embankment of the Ob river and the youth theater "Globus" are especially attractive.
The Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre is one of the most important theatres in Novosibirsk and Siberia. It is located at the center of Novosibirsk at Lenin square.
The building was completed in February 1944, and the first performance was held on 12 May 1945. As of 2012, it is the largest theatre in Russia, larger than the Bolshoi Theatre (literally "Big theatre") in Moscow. After its renovation in 2005 with computerized stage equipment, at the time it became the most technically advanced in Russia. The total area of the building is 11,837 m2 (127,410 sq ft), the volume is 294,340 m3 (10,395,000 cu ft). The theatre is often called the "Siberian Coliseum" because of its size and beauty. The auditorium seats more than 1,790 spectators. Its upper gallery is decorated with copies of antique Greek statues.
The theater was visited by Mao Zedong during his visit to Novosibirsk. By that time the theater had been working for 5 years. That day they gave Borodin’s opera Prince Igor. In addition, Soviet artists performed a ballet to the music of the Chinese composer Zhang-Xiao-Hu "Precious Lotus Lantern". The Chinese leader was delighted with the Siberian Theater. After 7 years, the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Company troupe went on tour in China in connection with the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution. Mao Zedong visited all the performances of Novosibirsk — both ballet and opera. He met with artists, and the head of the delegation of Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev took in his residence. The tour of the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater was a great event in the cultural and social life of China, they lasted 90 days. The halls were crowded in Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and other cities.
The Novosibirsk Zoo is located on the territory of the Zaeltsovsky Forest Park. Location in the pine forest is a unique event among all zoos in the world. It contains about 10 000 animals of 702 species of animals. More than 300 species are listed in the International Red Book, the Red Book of Russia and the Novosibirsk Region. Animals are kept in spacious enclosures and often give offspring. In the zoo one of the world’s richest collections of felines and martens is collected. Some species (argali, lion tamarin, takin and some others) are not kept in any of the zoos in Russia and the CIS. There are no Caucasian leopards in any zoo in the world, except for Novosibirsk. Separately, it should be said about the liger, a rare hybrid of a lion and a tigress.
Museum "Siberian Birch" in Novosibirsk
Museum of Modern Art in Birch. The exposition of the museum presents a unique collection of more than 200 pieces of decorative and applied art from the birch bark of professional artists and folk masters of Siberia.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral
In December 1999, 100 years have passed since the day of the consecration of the Cathedral of the Holy Blessed and the Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky. Here you can read a story about this glorious jubilee.
The cathedral was built in neo-Byzantine style as a temple-monument to the organizer of the Great Siberian Route to Emperor Alexander III. Cathedral — the first stone building of the city.
The builder is a nobleman, engineer Nikolai Mikhailovich Tikhomirov (1857-1900), one of the founders of Novonikolaevsk. Buried on the territory of the temple, in 1971 his remains were transferred to the Zaeltsovskoye cemetery.
Construction began in 1896. The Cathedral was consecrated on December 29, 1899 by Bishop Makarios of Tomsk and Barnaul. In the early 30ies the church was closed. After the return of his Russian Orthodox Church, he was consecrated again on May 15, 1991 by Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II.
Immediately after the return of the church of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1989, its restoration began. The bell tower was rebuilt, the dome of the church was closed, damaged and worn out fragments of external walls were renovated, internal planning was restored and the internal walls of the church were plastered again.
After re-consecration of the cathedral, the spiritual life interrupted for decades was resumed in it. In the cathedral daily services are performed, parishioners actively carry out missionary and charitable activities.
By the mid-1950s, the post-war reconstruction of industry in the European part of the country had ended. The vast industrial complex of Siberia, largely represented by evacuated industrial enterprises, required technological renewal. On May 18, 1957, the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved the proposal of academicians MA. Lavrentyeva and S.A. Khristianovich on the establishment of a scientific center in Siberia and adopted a resolution "On the organization of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences." The branch included West Siberian, East Siberian, Yakut and Far Eastern branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, academic institutes in Krasnoyarsk and Sakhalin, as well as the formation of new 10 research institutes with the subsequent development of up to 14 institutes in the allotted territory in the southern suburban area of Novosibirsk.
On June 7, 1957, the Institute of Mathematics, the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, the Institute of Hydrodynamics, the Institute of Physics (since 1958 — the Institute of Nuclear Physics), the Institute of Automation, the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, the Institute of Physics, Institute of Thermophysics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Institute of Economic Statistics, Institute of Experimental Biology and Medicine.
June 15, 1958 USSR Council of Ministers approved the general plan for the construction of the Novosibirsk Akademgorodok. The planned scientific town was located 25 km from the city center on the southern direction (Barnaul). The main zones of the town were located in a belt forest, within walking distance from the artificial Ob reservoir of Novosibirsk HPP.
Novosibirsk Akademgorodok is located in the Soviet district of the city and is one of the most important scientific and educational centers of Russia.
Dozens of scientific research institutes, the Presidium of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), Novosibirsk State University, the Physics and Mathematics School are located on its territory.
One of the best institutes of the Novosibirsk Akademgorodok is the Institute of Nuclear Physics, whose development is widely known in Russia and in the world. Thus, 80% of the Russian contribution to the development and launch of the Large Hadron Collider is the result of the efforts of the scientists of INP.
Novosibirsk State University is a training center for scientific institutions of the Novosibirsk region and other regions of Russia. In 2009, NSU obtained the status of a national research university.
The development of science in the Novosibirsk region creates favorable conditions for companies operating in the field of information technology and communications. Among them are world-famous "Parallels", "Alawar Entertainment", "Novosoft", "SoftLab", "Center for Financial Technologies" — developer of the Russian payment system "Golden Crown".